Risk of HIV Infection
|Anal Intercourse||1/250 - 1/500|
|Needle stick Injury||1/300|
|Sharing of Needle||1/100 - 1/150|
HIV can be transmitted by:
- Vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom.
- Sharing drug injecting equipment.
- During pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding if the mother is HIV positive.
HIV is rarely transmitted by:
Vaginal or anal sex with a correctly used condom (using only water-based lube).
Oral sex without a condom (ejaculation increases the risk, as may gum disease).
Needle stick injuries.
HIV has not been reported as being transmitted by:
- Kissing or cuddling.
- Shaking hands/social contacts.
- Sharing knives and forks, cups or glasses.
- Sharing toilet seats or mosquito bites.
Testing for HIV Infection
There are a number of methods to test for HIV using blood, saliva or urine samples. However, the most accurate and the most common way is by testing a person’s blood. There are three biological markers that can be tested to diagnose an HIV infection:
- Testing for HIV antibodies (the body’s immune response to an HIV infection);
- Testing for the p24 Antigen (a protein that is produced during the early phase of an HIV infection);
- Testing for the HIV virus itself (that causes AIDS)